Fluency refers to how well a learner communicates meaning rather than how many mistakes they make in grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. Fluency is often compared with accuracy, which is concerned with the type, amount and seriousness of mistakes made.
I personally, don’t believe that fluency is a goal worth striving towards only with students who are at a fairly advanced level. I firmly believe that the learning of a language is about communication, and I feel that fluency should be the main goal in our teaching and that it should be practiced right from the start.
More traditional teachers may tend to give accuracy greater importance;In my classes, I tend towards fluency.
Of course, we learn a language for communication, so I think that if a student is fluent but not accurate, it is still important to check whether the mistakes or errors can not block communication. Otherwise we need to correct any mistake that can be an obstacle to communication. I just want to stress out that being fluent without being accurate is not the issue we should focus on if communication is taking place effectively.
Let’s be honest: in terms of preparation for the world outside the classroom, fluency is sometimes even more important than accuracy.
Why I am more interested in fluency than accuracy in the early stages of language acquisition? Because, I think back to my own elementary school days… I disliked teachers who singled out students for correction. I think correcting speech is counter-productive to learning. I think some students are initially going to have a difficult time learning English due to not comprehending what is being said and also due to vocalizing new words. So, if I correct everything said, students might feel that English is too difficult. They may perhaps tune out and/or become embarrassed and may develop a negative attitude to English.
The most important thing for me has been to recall the wonderful teachers I have had in the past with a view to modeling them as much as possible in my own classrooms. And I have found reflecting on the outcome of my lessons brought me closer to the ideal. This I found was a positive way for me to improve my teaching and create an ever more joyful atmosphere for the learning of English as a foreign language for my young students.
Actually, I have realized that, it’s usually easier to become more accurate in a language! Fluency is harder to master, so that’s what we should focus on at first, even in the beginning of the school year! Especially, then!
An example I can give, comes from a close friend of mine, who loves learning languages. This is what she has told me…:”A long time ago when I learned French in a “Frontisterio” ( private Language Institutions in Greece) , the language teachers believed that the most important thing was grammar. So I learned French grammar very well—even to this day I am proficient. But I can hardly speak a sentence of French because no one cared about my fluency—only my accuracy.”
All in all, quite an important factor in education towards cooperation, is the teacher’s attitude. If she favors a cooperative style of teaching generally and does not shy away from the greater workload connected with group work or projects, if she uses activities to increase fluency, then the conditions for learning to cooperate and develop fluency, are good. The atmosphere within a class can largely be determined by the teacher, who – quite often without being aware of it – sets the tone by choosing certain teaching methodology and practices.
Activities that help to develop fluency focus on communication- for example discussions, speaking games, presentations…..
Here are just few ideas for icebreaker and fluency activities, suitable for a wide rage of students, which have worked in my classes.
a) Start with a ball of yarn.Say your name and an interesting fact about yourself.Then, holding an end, toss the ball to a student.The student will say his/her name and an interesting fact , then holding on to part of the yarn,toss the ball to another student.By the time everyone has spoken, there will be a large web of yarn that can be displayed on the bulletin board with thumb tacks, if you want!
(This activity is excellent as a review tool, too.Each student says something about the subject, , then tosses the yarn)
b) Split the students in pairs. Each pair will have 30 seconds to find 5 things they have in common.At the end of the 30 seconds, put two pairs together and give the four a minute or so to find something all four students have in common.
Finally, each group can present the list of things they have in common.(You can use this activity, to form student groups, too)
c)Pass around, a bag of M&Ms.Tell the students to take as many as they want.Once all the students have M&Ms, tell them that for each M&M, they took, they have to say/write one thing about themselves. For instance, if a student took 10 M&Ms , they would have to say/write 10 things about themselves, different for each color.
Green: something about school
Red: something about my family
Blue: something about my hobbies
Yellow: something about my future plans
Brown: something about my friends
(Variation-use a roll of toilet paper, instead of M&Ms)
d)Me in a bag, has been one of my most favorite activities, for many years now…
I put a few items that represent me in a large paper sack.I put a paintbrush because I love drawing, my favorite book , my favorite CD, a cookbook etc
The students, guess the significance of each item as I pull it out of the bag.This discussion helps the kids to know me as a person.
Each student then, has a turn to bring in his/her own ” Me in a Bag”, giving everyone in the class the chance to shine!
e)Another fluency activity that I love, is “My timeline” or ” My numbers”.
I start the lesson by drawing a line on the board and and write important dates of my life on it.
Students ask me questions about my life to get them as answers.
For homework, students draw their own timelines.and they talk in pairs about them. I walk around listening…
f) Music mingle , is also one of my favorite fluency activities.
Move with the music, stop when it stops, grab a partner and talk about a happy memory ( or anything else, eg holidays, favorites etc) until music starts again….
g)True or False activities ,have always been my favorite ones!
I write 4 facts about myself and read them to my students. 3 facts are true but 1 is false.
Students take my little true-false test.Then, I survey students to learn the results. We go back over each question to see what they thought about each statement.
That gives a chance to tell them a little about me.
Then, on a sheet of paper, students write 3 interesting facts about themselves that are true and 1 that is false. A class discussion starts.
h)Open questions session: Sometimes, just a simple opportunity to ask questions, can benefit our class. When I have a few minutes, I open the floor for my older students to ask me questions.,They can be about anything! They just love it!
Learning a foreign language is not just a matter of memorizing a different set of names for the things around us… it is also an educational experience.
Whatever the activity, think through the language they will need to complete it and include some kind of post-activity focus on form slot. Variety is important as anything can become dull if it’s done too often and is thus predictable. Vary the task, the seating arrangements, group size and materials used.